Surcouf, roi des corsaires (French Edition)
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The "corsair" activities started in the Middle Ages the main goals really being to compensate for the economic problems in war periods; and the ship owners did not accept that the war was an obstacle to their trade. Saint-Malo, however, progressed and in the town was made into a free commune to encourage the commercial activities of craftsmen as well as merchants and ship owners. This did not really work out and later in the town became a free port. This situation continued until Between the early s and when the signing of the treaty of Utrecht effectively put an end to the French corsair raids in the Caribbean, the guerre de course , as the French called it, took a huge toll on the Spanish treasure fleet's efforts to ship the gold and silver from Peru to Santo Domingo and Havana and then on to Spain.
During this period, there was an intense drive to improve, not only the speed of the ships involved in this contest, but also their maneuverability and ability to sail into the wind the close haul. It was a matter of life or death, and immense wealth was at stake. Jean d'Ango, father and son, came to be among the wealthiest and most influential men in France.
In addition to those listed below, Giovanni da Verrazzano namesake of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and Jean Fleury were among the principals in this era.
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The activities of the corsairs were so profitable that the Minister of the Navy used this in his strategy to make money. Moreover, the King used to take one-quarter or even one-third of the booty. The corsairs' activities weakened France's enemies; indeed, English trade losses were very important from to In a note based on an examination of Lloyd's List from to , the anonymous author showed that British shipping losses to captures exceeded those resulting from the perils of the sea.
Losses to capture: ; recaptured ; Net — Perils of the sea: plus driven on shore, of which 70 recovered; Net — The relationship between the corsairs and the State changed as the power of the State grew. The rules became stricter and State control more and more present. At the end of the 18th century, the "course" started to decline until its legal death in The "course" disappeared in France with the Empire in , but was officially ended only by the Treaty of Paris , where every major northern hemisphere nation except Spain, Mexico, and the United States, was present, and the Congress of Vienna.
In them he captured numerous prizes. He and Duc de Dantzig disappeared without a trace around the end of His arguments did not fall on deaf ears: in , Napoleon chose a blockade against England rather than direct confrontation, and allowed privateers to operate with relative impunity.
Empire In , Surcouf went into business as ship-owner, and equipped 14 privateers in the Indian Ocean among them his brother Nicolas Surcouf and his cousin Joseph Potier. Their achievements, however, were somewhat less impressive than Surcouf's own: four of the corsairs were captured by British warships, and 5 campaigns turned a deficit. On 2 March , Surcouf returned to sea on a specially built three-master, the gun "Revenant".
During the subsequent campaign, which was to be his last, Surcouf captured 16 British ships, partly because British ships tended to lower their flag in defeat as soon as they realised their opponent was Surcouf. He then decided to stay on the island, leaving the campaign to his second-in-command and cousin Joseph Potier. In the meantime, Decaen had confiscated all Surcouf's possessions in the Indian Ocean. In October , the "Revenant" renamed "Iena" was captured by a British warship and renamed "Victor".
She later took part in the Battle of Grand Port. On 4 February , "Le Charles" arrived in France with an 8-million-franc cargo. Surcouf was received by Napoleon and made "Baron d'Empire", and his possessions were returned to him. It was to be Bonaparte's only naval victory over the British and was inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. The British came back a few months later with an overwhelming force and took over the island.
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She was a single-mast, ton cutter , with 10 carronade s and 4 cannons, crewed by 46 men. On 9 September beginning at five o'clock and lasting through the night, "Le Renard" successfully engaged the British vessel "Alphea".
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She was armed with 16 cannons and crewed by over 80 elite British sailors. Combat was intense and bloody until at three o'clock in the morning, when the "Alphea" took two direct hits from "Le Renard" to presumably the powder magazine, which caused the ship to explode. There were no reported survivors; Surcouf returned to France with only 13 able-bodied men.
However, he took no part in the Hundred Days as a chief of Legion. After the war, he returned to Saint-Malo, rich and with the title of baron , and became a merchant ship-owner, establishing business with Terre-Neuve , the Caribbean , Africa , and the Indian Ocean. It was named after a chap who led a so-called "Trek" migration called Andries Pretorius. And then you can tell me what I have to do. Or shall I just download? I didn't even make the link between Praetor and Pretoria As the small guy in the inescutcheon is supposed to be a Roman Praetor You mean this CoA? A bit late, my friend, a bit late Moreover you already commented it You'll have to choose another one.
The another one afterwards. The combination of colours is nice That's him. But not a pirate, a corsair. That makes a huge difference. I often use the tags to add more information. It is indeed. Hmm, really? I thought "corsair" was just another word for "pirate". It is in normal English usage. Tell me more! It's fun! It seems French corsairs were special Sir Francis Blake was one of the most famous corsairs. Corsairs, or privateers, held warfare for countries, often using pirates methods, but with strict rules.
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The French Wikipedia article gives them. To have a letter of marque received from the state for "running over enemy ships"; this authorization lapses upon cessation of hostilities. If it is possible to approach the enemy ship by cunning by flying a neutral flag or allied there is an "obligation" to hoist, from a certain distance, the true flag.